ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEANS OF PUTTING PAYLOADS INTO LOW-EARTH ORBIT
Vasilii Pavlovich Mishin

Introduction
Why do we need to explore space? Several questions about the history of the development of rockets for putting payloads into space. The necessity of creating economical reuseable launch systems. Several approaches to creating a reusable launch system for near-Earth orbits. Criteria for comparing reuseable launch systems. About automated and manned launch systems and spacecraft. Conclusions.

1. INTRODUCTION.
One of the most important phases of space mission is to put payloads from the Earth to near-Earth orbits. This phase is determined by necessity to sustain great gravitational loads. Decreasing of cost of putting payloads into orbit is one of the main ways to decrease the total cost of space exploration activity. The first question that we should ask ourselves is Why do we need to explore space? What benefits in improving life standards on the Earth will rocket technology development offer? What is necessary is development of nationwide long-term oriented programs of space exploration. The tasks of space exploration must be formulated and the priorities must be outlined. Considering the formulated tasks the minimal cost complex of tools for their soloving could be defined. Proportion between manned and unmanned missions is to be optimized. Various means could be used for solving the same problem, and this is the point for possible cost reduction

2. WHY DO WE NEED TO EXPLORE SPACE?

The Mankind needs to explore space to broaden the knowledge of the Universe, the Earth and other planets, to understand Earth-Solar interaction and its influence on climat of the Earth. We need more information to understand the origin of planet Earth, and to understand processes of its atmosphere and its surface. The mastering of Space should be made for the need of the Mankind: creation of systems of satellites of various kinds (communication; navigation; meteorology; mapping; geology; Earth monitoring; monitoring for preventing military conflicts etc.); creation of space industries and space laboratories in which space environment characteristics could be used (weightlessness; deep vacuum; highest and lowest temperatures; unlimited potential of solar energy); using of space components in creation of distant control network for dangerous industries unmanned control systems; creation of space transportation systems for extremely long routes on the Earth; creation of effective rocket technologies for solving ecological; energetical; nutricial and other problems which have arisen on the Earth.

3.SEVERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROCKETS FOR PUTTING PAYLOADS INTO SPACE.

Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) for the heavy warheads established the basis for creation of booster-launchers, able to put payloads into near-Earth orbits. In the USSR the R-7 ICBM played this role for the first artificial satellites; in the USA the Jupiter ICBM was used in orbiting the first American satellite. After that, the first manned spacecrafts were orbited. In the USSR the three-stage Vostok booster-launcher putted into orbit the Vostok spacecraft with the first cosmonaut inside - Yuri Gagarin. The Vostok booster-launcher was the clone of R-7 ICBM. In the USA Mercury and Gemini spaceships were orbited by booster-launchers developed on the basis of Atlas and Titan ICBMs. The first satellites and spaceships were followed by both military and civil satellites and also space probes for Solar System planets exploration. Masses of payloads have been constantly increasing; the cargo flow from the Earth to the Space has been increasing too. Greater masses of payloads became the must for orbiting the Moon, landing of a human being onto its surface, and successful return to the Earth. While ICBM clones covered all the tasks for early spacecrafts orbiting, next steps in Space exploration required heavier booster-launchers for heavier payloads orbiting into near-Earth orbits. That required development of new heavier launch systems, that greatly increases costs of orbiting payloads.

4.THE NECESSITY OF CREATING ECONOMICAL REUSEABLE LAUNCH SYSTEMS.

The creation of less expensive reuseable launch systems could be one of the ways to decrease launch cost for increased cargo flow to orbits. The first attempts in this direction were made in the USSR and in the USA. Unfortunately both Space Shuttle and Buran could not reduce costs of payload orbiting. The specific cost of orbiting payload by Space Shuttle is hundred times greater than expected. That forced US Ministry of Defence to change its position and to start new contracts for booster-launchers. The specific cost of orbiting payload by Energia-Buran launch complex is four times greater than orbiting by Soyuz or Proton booster-launchers. New more economical launch complexes for orbiting payloads are looked for nowadays. Only substantial reduction of costs of space missions can secure solving of problems of Mankind. Growing industry and active use of natural resources are changing environment and has led to ecological crisis.


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