Party secretary of the King
V. Andreev, Samara State Aerospace university named by S.P. Koroljov,
chair of LA
Time is going,
but rocket-nuclear shield remains one of the main factors which keep peace.
Common people don't have a habit usually to think that this is not only
provided by modern technique but the fortunes of people whom our country
may be proud. It's useful to remember that October 25 year 1911 in far
siberian village M.K. Yangel was born....
It happened so that there was no transport for completed products at
the factory once. So "Yujmash" territory began to fill with missiles.
The vagons were delivered at least naturally, but before they were found
N.S. Khruschev arrived. As a result the legend was born that "we stamp
them as sausages" ( so quick that are not able to take away). Yangel
missiles were the subject of this legend. He began his career in the bureau
of "King of fighters" N.N.Polikarpov, after
graduation at Moscow aviation
institute (MAI). When he was only 20 he became
a member of communist party (CPSU) and soon was elected in MAI CPSU comitee.
In whole his life was not rich with misfortunes as that ones of many other
He was connected with I-185 fighter flight tests, in which V.
Chkalov crushed, but he had no problems with NKVD. In 1938 he went abroad.
One may compare him with Koroljov, who at this moment was moving in the
quite opposite direction - to the prison camp in Kolyma region and this
was not the worst because a lot of his collegues were simply shot.
Yangel never dreamed about rockets and was not fond of spaceflights.
When he was sent to NII-88 he was a good aviation specialist and hope
to connect his future with aviation. Two years later Yangel became a director
of NII-88. This was a serious "click on noze" for Koroljov (and
Because of several circumstances among which there were complicated
relations with Koroljov, Yangel was "separated" both with the
factory in Dnepropetrovsk ("Yujmash").
While being a part of "Koroljov firm" this factory leadered
by Vasily Budnik was producing R-1, R-2 and R-5 missiles (SS-1A, SS-3).
New design bureau received from Koroljov a project of R-12 high temperature
boiling fuel IRBM. Previous R-5 had the main disadvantage in it's power
plant. It's engine was a significantly updated but one from german FAU-2.
There remained the only way to improve the rocket features seriously- to
install a new engine. The time was limited as usual and nobody changed
technology obviously. Inspite of all efforts it was impossible to mount
four chamber engine in old diameter. So the tail swction became conical.
This made missiles more stable in flight. Fuel tanks were plolonged and
fuel components were changed.
R-12 was adopted in service in the march of 1958. In september of the
same year the first trial of silo based R-12 took place.
Having earned an experience a young design bureau begun to derive it's
first missile (SS-5). June 1960 the first trial of 8K65 IRBM took place.
It was accepted in service in 1961. Only under the pressure of political
leaders Yangel was obliged to try to transform R-12 and R-14 in spacecraft
launchers. The first one failed to become suitable launcher. The
second one is in action until nowdays plasing small satellites into
During "chelomeezation" of soviet rocket industry the design
of new ICBM was seized from Yangel design bureau and fulfilled as UR-100
(8K84 or SS-11).
The works on sea-based IRBM failed. Inspite of serious catastrophe
happened in october of 1960 Yangel completed successfully the trials of
R-16 (8K84) ICBM and transfered it into service. Later he derived his best
missile- R-36 (SS-9/18). The work on R-56 missile design for 80 Mt nuclear
bomb, known as "Kuz'kina mat'" resulted in soviet manned lunar
program participation. One of rocket blocks of N-1 (11A52) lunar booster
was derived in Yangel design bureau. R-56 remained
on paper only- "Proton" by Bugayskiy-Chelomey won the competition.
Yangel missiles didn't differ with some special structure solutions
and never played significant role in TASS announcements. This reliable
and precise weapon was a major part of rocket umbrella of USSR.
NKVD- organization later named KGB
IRBM- intermediate range ballistic missile
ICBM- interconental ballistic missile
NII-88- Scientific-research institute No 88
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